History of main battle
- 1) Visiting between South and North Korea
- 2) Status of visiting by field
- 3) Osan Battle (July 5,1950)
- 4) Dongrak-ri Battle (July 5~10, 1950)
- 5) The Incheon Landing Operation (September 15~16, 1950)
- 6) Jeokseong Battle (April 22~25, 1951)
- 7) Gapyeong Battle (April 23~25, 1951)
- 8) Yongmun Mt. Battle (May 18~21)
- 9) Sacheon River Battle
- 10) Bulmo Hill Battle (June 26 ~ October 1, 1952)
- 11) Goyangdae Battle (September 6 ~ December 13, 1952)
- 12) Nevada Outpost Battle (March 28~30, 1953)
1) Visiting between South and North KoreaTOP
Uijeongbu Battle - The Monument of Lieutenant Colonel Kim Pung-ik
The battle of Uijeongbu was the battle were the ROK 7th Infantry Division, defending the division line, had to fight against the NKPA 1st Corps (the 3rd & 4th Divisions) around Dongducheon, Pocheon, and Chukseokryeong during the first two days of Korean War. The NKPA forces infiltrated the division line, backed up by the NKPA 105th Brigade.
At this battle, the ROK 7th Division came under attack of the NKPA forces at June 25 and pulled back to Pocheon and Dongducheon after losing its position around the division line to the enemy. Then the ROK 7th Division was in a hurry to establish a defense line but have no choice but to withdraw to Uijeongbu after hitting hard by the North Korean tank units. The 7th Division launched a counterattack on the North Korean forces with the support of the ROK 2nd Division and the Capital Security Headquarters but was forced to retreat to the Changdong line in the afternoon of June 26, 1950.Uijeongbu, the gateway to Seoul, fell into the hand of the KNPA forces through this battle. So the ROK forces made its utmost in order to seek a strong measure to defend Seoul. The NKPA forces halted its offensive in Uijeongbu and began guarding itself for the operation for invading Seoul.
2) Status of visiting by fieldTOP
The ROK 1st Infantry Division fought a defensive battle with the support of the two attachment infantry units against the 1st & 6th NPA Divisions which were backed by a T-34 tank regiment around Gaesung, Munsan, Papyeong Mt., and Bongil-cheon(stream) for four days.In this battle, the 1st ROK Division deterred the KNPA forces from advancing south by using natural obstacles from the Imjin river and Gokryeungcheon but had to retreat to Siheung, crossing the Han river, because the withdrawal route was blocked after the North Korean forces took Seoul on June 28. However, the ROK 1st Division missed a chance to retreat and suffered a heavy loss because it had to abandone all crew-served weapons and the personnel disintegrated by the lack of the equipment for crossing the river. This battle enabled the North Korean forces to occupy the north part of Hansu. Thus the ROK forces had many difficulties in establishing a defense line around the Han River.
3) Osan Battle (July 5,1950)TOP
Osan Battle - The UN Forces Monument
The newly-arrived Smith Task Force of the U.S. 24th Division 21st Regiment fought a defensive battle against the two regiments of the North Korean 4th Division and one tank regiment that were advancing south around Jukmiryeong. The Smith TF took a fierce, single battle against the advancing tank and infantry units of the enemy only to withdraw to Cheonan by way of Anseong after six hours’ battle.Both sides of the battle suffered a heavy loss. This battle let the KNPA forces know the U.S.’ entry into the Korean War and let the U.S. forces get a grip on the strength of the North Korean forces.
4) Dongrak-ri Battle (July 5~10, 1950)TOP
The ROK forces in the west line congregated at Pyenontaek and Anseong after the defense line of the Han River was destroyed. The 7th Regiment of the ROK 6th Infantry Division moved south toward Chungju from Wonju along the axial line of the road No. 3 (Icheon-Janahowon-Chungju) and went toward Janghowon in order to deter the 15th KNPA Division from advancing south. The 7th ROK Regiment defeated the KNPA leading troop?the 48th North Korean Regiment?and delayed the enemy’s advancement to the south. The ROK forces achieved the greatest victory after the war in this battle, and which led to delaying the North Korean forces’ advancement to Eunseong for one week. So the ROK forces were able to establish the defense line and rearrange the battle line.
5) The Incheon Landing Operation (September 15~16, 1950)TOP
The Incheon Landing Operation was initiated by the UN forces and the ROK forces after deterring the KNPA forces’ offense between August and September. The 7th Joint Landing Mobile troop of the UN Navy mobilized a large-scale fleet of 261 warships to enable the 10th U.S. Corps (the 1st U.S. Marine Division, the 7th U.S. Infantry Division, the 1st ROK Marine Regiment, and the 17th ROK Regiment) to land on Incheon. The UN forces successfully implanted the landing operation within one month by overcoming the natural disadvantage of the Incheon harbor such as the high tide (up to 10.3m) and the narrow channel. The success of the landing operation facilitated the UN forces’ all-out counterattack operation.
6) Jeokseong Battle (April 22~25, 1951)TOP
Confronting the first spring offensive of the CCF, the 29th British Commonwealth Brigade and the Belgium attachment battalion delayed the attack of the CCF around the Imjin River (Jeokseong-Dogampo). In this battle, the Closter battalion of the 29th British Commonwealth Brigade suffered a critical loss but made a significant contribution to the operation of the 1st U.S. Corps. The Closter battalion did the largest part in blocking the first spring offensive of the CCF on the south of Seoul.
7) Gapyeong Battle (April 23~25, 1951)TOP
Gapyeong Battle Monument
The 6th ROK Infantry Division’s line was cut through by the first spring offensive of the CCF in April 1951 and the 20th CCF Corps which was extending its reach to Gapyeong. The 27th British Commonwealth Brigade took up a position around the Gapyeong-cheon(stream) and blocked the CCF. The 20th CCF Corps could not cross the North Han River in the south of Gapyeong when it was implementing the first spring offensive. Therefore the ROK and UN forces could get leeway for establishing a new defense position on No-name Sun.
8) Yongmun Mt. Battle (May 18~21)TOP
Yongmun Mt. Battle Monument
The 6th ROK Division was defending Yongmun Mt. on the north of Yangpyeong while confronting the second spring offensive1951.5) of the CCF. The 6th ROK Division defeated the attack of the 187th/188th/189 Divisions of the 63rd CCF Corps, which was hit hard and was forced to retreat to the north of Gapyeong. The 6th ROK Division took on offensive, ran after the enemy, and advanced 60km toward Lake Baljeon by way of Gapyeong and Chuncheon, marking a series of brilliant achievements.
9) Sacheon River BattleTOP
The 1st ROK Marine Regiment (the right flank of the 1st U.S. Marine Division),defending the 11km main line defense from Panmunjeom to the estuary of the Imjin river, fought against the 1945th & 195th CCF Divisions in the eight positions on the forward of the main resistance line while both sides were vying for the possession of outpost positions from summer to winter in 1952. The CCF recognized that it cannot cut through the outpost line of the ROK Marine Regiment which was getting powerful fire support and the ROK Marine regiment was able to secure the outpost of the east Sacheon River until the truce.
10) Bulmo Hill Battle (June 26 ~ October 1, 1952)TOP
The 45th U.S. Division, which took up a defense position around Cheondeok Mt., occupied 11 outpost positions including Bulmo Hill on the forward of the main resistance line in order to secure the defense depth. When the 45th Division came under attack from the three divisions of the CCF Corps, it successful defeated the CCF forces with the support of the 2nd U.S. Division on Bulmo Hill, which is one of the advance positions. Both sides suffered a heavy loss because they even fought hand to hand as well as engaged in a massive fire operation. This battle served as an opportunity for the CCF to recognize the strong fire power of the U.S. forces, and for which in return to reevaluate the so-called human wave tactics of the CCF.
11) Goyangdae Battle (September 6 ~ December 13, 1952)TOP
There were continuous battles for securing outposts in the central line between fall and winter in 1952. At that time the 1st ROK Division, which took up its position on the upstream of Imjin River, fought a defensive battle with the 47th CCF Corps on the outpost positions (Nicky Hill, Tecy Hill, Nori Hill, Betty Hill) around Goyangdae. At this battle which began at fall and continued on winter, the 1st ROK lost Nicky and Tecy Hills at the beginning but secured Betty Hill and Nori Hill. When the 47th CCF Corps launched attack again, the 1st ROK Division finally secured Betty Hill and Nori Hill after exchanging fierce fire with the enemy with the artillery support (156,000 shots) and the close aerial support (117 sorties). The CCF was overwhelmed by the strong fire of the UN forces and was forced to cease attack. Thus the ROK forces were able to secure the defense line of Goyangdae.
12) Nevada Outpost Battle (March 28~30, 1953)TOP
The 5th Marine Regiment of the 1st U.S. Marine Division launched a defensive battle against the CCF 120th Division which invaded the outpost position of the 5th Marine Regiment while it was defending the Nevada outpost area (Vegas/Leno/Carson outposts) on the northeast of Panmunjeom. The 5th U.S. Marine Regiment lost Vegas outpost and Leno outpost after coming under attack of the CCF on March 26. It launched a counterattack with the support of one battalion of the 7th Marine Regiment, artillery units, and air force. Therefore, the 5th U.S. Marine Regiment put the operation to recapture Leno outpost on hold and took up Vegas outpost again by mounting an intensive attack. And then the 120th Chinese Division counterattacked for three days only to find that it was heavily damaged. At this battle the 120th division of CCR was damaged and the 5th U.S. Marine Regiment exchanged duties with the Turkish Brigade and rearranged itself.